Glossary 2017-05-23T00:49:25+00:00

Glossary of Cybersecurity Terms

A

AEDAPAMULET Enabled Digital Asset Protection is the unique approach of providing security at the asset level, using a highly advanced patent-pending security technology

aliasing artifacts – ‘aliasing’ is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled, and ‘artifacts’ refer to the distortion (or artifacts) that results when the signal reconstructed from samples is different from the original continuous signal.

AMULET™ – stands for Autovalidating Metadata as a Unique Lexical Enciphered Tag

attack surface – an information system’s characteristics that permit an adversary to probe, attack, or maintain presence in the information system.

authentication – the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.

authorization – specifying access rights to resources.

B

botnet – a network of private computers infected with malicious software and controlled as a group without the owners’ knowledge, e.g., to send spam messages.

bug bounty – business in gray and black markets where information identifying application vulnerabilities and full exploits are bought and sold for private use, often weaponization (black) or to spy on private citizens suspected of crimes (gray).

C

cat fishing – is common on social networking and online dating sites. Sometimes a catfish’s intent is to defraud a victim, seek revenge or commit identity theft.

cipher – a secret or disguised way of writing; a cryptographic algorithm code.

container – ‘containers’ refer to file directories, browsers, operating systems…basically the places where data (digital assets) reside on mobile devices, PC’s, in-house file servers or within cloud data centers.

container security -also referred to as “endpoint security” or “container-related asset protection”. Traditional container security protects by using physical and software-enabled solutions to effectively keep out predators.   [ see also “endpoint security”]

D

dark web – parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard search engines for any reason. Also referred to as “deep web” or “hidden web”.

decrypt – to decode something with or without previous knowledge of its key.

deep web – same as “dark web”.

denial of service – an attack in which a multitude of compromised systems attack a single target, thereby causing denial of service for users of the targeted system.

digital asset – in essence, anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use. Files that do not possess the aforementioned right are not considered assets. Digital assets are classified as images, multimedia and textual content files.

digital rights management – often referred to simply as “DRM”, is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. The purpose of DRM is to prevent unauthorized redistribution of digital media and restrict the ways consumers can copy content they’ve purchased.

DRM – see digital rights management

E

encryption – to change (information) from one form to another especially to hide its meaning.

endpoint security – also referred to as “container-related asset protection”. The concept where each computer or network device (i.e. endpoints) is responsible for its own security. In endpoint security, the protection of a corporate network focuses on network devices (endpoints) by monitoring their status, activities, software, authorization and authentication.   [ see also “container security”]

F

fail-safe – a design feature or practice that, in the event of a specific type of failure, inherently responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm.

firewall – a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.

forward secrecy – (FS; also known as “perfect forward secrecy”) is designed to prevent the compromise of a long-term secret encryption key from affecting the confidentiality of past conversations through the use of session keys. Forward secrecy, however, only protects keys, not the ciphers themselves and cannot defend against a successful cryptanalysis of the underlying ciphers being used. A patient attacker can capture a conversation whose confidentiality is protected through the use of public-key cryptography and wait until the underlying cipher is broken (e.g. large quantum computers could be created which allow the discrete logarithm problem to be computed quickly). This would allow the recovery of old plaintexts even in a system employing forward secrecy.

H

hacktivism – involves loosely organized groups who hack for political or ideological purposes.

hash value – the resulting the transformation of a string of characters into a usually shorter fixed-length value or key that represents the original string.

hashing – is the transformation of a string of characters into a usually shorter fixed-length value or key that represents the original string. Hashing is used to index and retrieve items in a database because it is faster to find the item using the shorter hashed key than to find it using.

I

inside threat – a malicious threat to an organization that comes from people within the organization, such as employees, former employees, contractors or business associates, who have inside information concerning the organization’s security practices, data and computer systems.

K

keylogger – a type of surveillance software (considered to be either software or spyware) that has the capability to record every keystroke you make to a log file.

M

machine learning – a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides computers with the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can teach themselves to grow and change when exposed to new data.

man in the middle – a man-in-the-middle attack (abbreviated MiTM, MiM, MitMA) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.

moving target defense – is the concept of controlling change across multiple system dimensions in order to increase uncertainty and apparent complexity for attackers, reduce their window of opportunity and increase the costs of their probing and attack efforts.

P

passive attack – a network attack in which a system is monitored and sometimes scanned for open ports and vulnerabilities. The purpose is solely to gain information about the target and no data is changed on the target.

phishing – is a deceptive attempt to pose as a reputable entity or person in electronic communications, to try to obtain financial or other confidential information from the user.

R

ransomware – is a type of malware that prevents or limits users from accessing their system, either by locking the system’s screen or by locking the users’ files unless a ransom is paid.

relay attack – In a classic relay attack, communication with both parties is initiated by the attacker who then merely relays messages between the two parties without manipulating them or even necessarily reading them.

rootkit – a collection of tools (programs) that enable administrator-level access to a computer or computer network.

S

spear phishing – an email or electronic communications scam targeted towards a specific individual, organization or business.

spoofing – in general, is a fraudulent or malicious practice in which communication is sent from an unknown source disguised as a source known to the receiver.

steganography – the practice of concealing messages or information within other nonsecret text or data

T

typoglycemia – is a term used to describe a recent discovery about the cognitive processes behind reading written text, where a word appears to be blend of a “typo”.  See full description

Z

zombie – a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.